The name Ukraine first appeared in twelfth century chronicles in reference to the Kyivan Rus.

This Eastern Slavic state flourished from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries on the territory of contemporary Ukraine, with Kyiv as its capital.

The 1863 patriotic song "Ukraine Has Not Perished," composed by Myxaylo Verbyts'kyi from a poem of Pavlo Chubyns'kyi, became the Ukrainian national anthem in 1917 and was reaffirmed in 1991.

These symbols were prohibited as subversive under the Soviets, but secretly were cherished by all Ukrainian patriots.

Ukraine's regional ethnographic cultures, not always congruent with oblast boundaries are: Donbas, Slobozhanshchyna, Zaporizhzhya, Steppes Ukraine, Poltava, Cherkasy, Polissya, Podillya, Volyn, Halychyna, Bukovyna, Transcarpathia, and Crimea.

Crimean Tatar culture predominates in Crimea, and the Hutsul highlanders live in Halychyna, Bukovyna, and Transcarpathia. Ukraine's 1989 census showed a population of 51,452,000.

Rus is mentioned for the first time by European chroniclers in 839 The Kyivan state experienced a cultural and commercial flourishing from the ninth to the eleventh centuries under the rulers Volodymyr I (Saint Volodymyr), his son Yaroslav I the Wise, and Volodymyr Monomakh.

The first of these rulers Christianized Rus in 988 The other two gave it a legal code.Formerly repressed, Ukrainian and other ethnic languages in Ukraine flourished at the end of the twentieth century.Ukrainian language use grew between 19, as evidenced by the increase of Ukrainian schools in multiethnic oblasts.Its Cyrillic alphabet is phonetic; its grammar is synthetic, conveying information through word modification rather than order.Contemporary literary Ukrainian developed in the eighteenth century from the Poltava and Kyiv dialects.A negative population growth was probably caused by economic and environmental crises, including the Chernobyl disaster.